The French Egyptologist, Mariette Pasha, insisted on the construction of this Museum. Twenty years later, the French architect Marcel Dourgan presented the plan of the Egyptian Museum Building. In the museum's garden, there is a big bronze statue over the marble tomb of Auguste Mariette bearing his name and dates of birth and death.
The Egyptian Museum was built to house the pharaonic works of art. The museum was built in 1897 and was opened in1902. Gasto Maspero was appointed to be the Director.
The Egyptian Museum was first built in Boulak. In 1891, it was moved to Giza Palace of "Ismail Pasha" which housed the antiquities that were later moved to the present building. It was built during the reign of Khedive Abbass Helmi II in 1897, and opened on November 15.
The museum displays a rare collection of 5000 years of art which is considered the largest most precious collection of Egyptian art in the world. Over 250,000 genuine artifacts are presented, including an exhibit dedicated to Tut-Ankh-Amon collection of treasure, gold and jewelry which was enclosed in his tomb for over 3,500 years before it was discovered in the 1920s when his tomb was excavated.
It contains two floors which has 100 exhibition rooms; the most famous is the 2nd floor which has Tut-ankh-Amon collection and the Mummy Room. There are also other masterpieces dating from the Pre-dynastic period till the Greek Roman period.
The mummies of some pharaohs of the 18 to 20th Dynasty found in Thebes. The first group was found in Deir el Bahari cachette and these consist of the mummies of: Seqenenre, Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Tuthmosis I, Tuthmosis II, Tuthmosis III, Seti I, Ramses II, Ramses III.The other group was found in the tomb of Amenhotep II, consisting of the mummies of: Amenhotep II, Tuthmosis IV, Amenhotep III, Merenptah, Seti II, Siptah, Ramses IV, Ramses V, Ramses VI, (and three women and a child.)
This museum exhibits over 120000 objects, some of the important groups of these objects are : Artifacts from the tombs of kings and members of the royal families of the Middle Kingdom found at Dahshur in 1894.The contents of the royal tombs of Tuthmosis III, Tuthmosis IV, Amenhotep III and Horemheb and the tomb of Yuya and Thuya.Artifacts from the tomb of Tutankhamun, consisting of more than 3500 Pieces, of which 1700 objects are displayed in the museum (the rest are in storerooms).
Objects from some royal and private tombs at Tanis (in the Delta) dating from the 21st and 22nd Dynasties. Artifacts from the Amarna period made for Akhenaton and members of his family and some high officials. These were found in Tell el Amarna, Hermopolis, Thebes and Memphis between 1912 and 1933. Collections of artifacts from the royal palaces
The Egyptian government established the "Service des Antiques del Egypte" in 1835 mainly to halt the plundering of archeological sites and to arrange the exhibition of the collected artifacts owned by the government. The Azbakian garden in Cairo was first used as a storage place for these artifacts.The collection was later transferred to another building in the citadel of Saladin.
In 1858, a museum was prepared at Boulaq, its contents collected by the French archeologist August Mariette. In 1880, the contents of the Boulaq museum was transferred to an annex of the Giza palace of Ismail pasha, the ruler of Egypt. The present museum was built in 1900, in the neo-classical style by the French architect Marcel Dourgnon.