Lake Nasser is an artificial lake in Egypt and Sudan located in the south in Egypt, south Aswan city. It is created by the construction of the Aswan High Dam opened in 1971. Its name is on the honor of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, who was the mastermind behind the controversial High Dam project.
It extends 500 km length of which 150 belong to Sudan (In The Sudan it is known as Lake Nubia), over a width going from 10 to 30 km. It is, by its capacity of volume of water (157 billion m3), the second in the world after that of the Zambezi.
Lake Nasser floods the Nile valley in the lower Nubian region between the first and second cataracts, this last of Sudan. Nubia region, which extends as far as the fourth cataract and was once rich in gold and other metal eagerly sought after by the Egyptian pharaohs, formed part of the empire for many years and numerous monuments were built there as the mark of the dominant power when the empire entered into decline the kushite kingdom rose to power , and the Nubian '' black pharaohs'' of the xxv dynasty came down from their capital in Napata , near what is now Merowe , in sudan at the height of the cataract , to reign over the whole of Egypt .
The inhabitants of the flooded area were forced to leave their homes for the fourth time , as they had witnessed the disappearance under the water or traditional homes when the first dam was built . These houses were each different from the other , decorated by finger painting and , occasionally, porcelain plates attached to the walls. These displaced people emigrated en masse to other parts of Egypt. So that they should not lose their roots completely , the Egyptian architect hassen fathy took traditional Nubian houses as his inspiration in designing new villages around Aswan and kharga oasis . these were simple , individually decorated buildings with brick vaults.
Many monuments had to be moved from their original sites to higher ground on the hillsides west the lake through an international effort, but others are lost to the waters of the lake. The most famous site to be saved in this way is Abu Simbel.
The quickest and easier way to visit the temple of Abu simbel is by plane , but most of the other temples around the lake can only be reached by boat . lake Nasser curises can now be taken from Aswan to Abu simbel to visit the most important temples there .
Near the high dam are the temple s of kalabsha , kertassi and Beit el-Wali . this last , built during the reign of Ramses II is carved into the rock. Before it is a court whose walls are adorned with scenes from the war against the Ethiopians and the kushites . Some 140 kilomaters south , around Sebuak , are the temple of wadi elsebou devoted byRamses II to Amun and Re –Harakhty – Dakka and Maharraka , built during the Graeco-Roman period.
Towards the middle of the lake lies the Amada site , made up of two temples. The Temple of Amada and Temple of Derr. The remains of many painting are still conserved here. The temple was converted into a church by the Coptic Christians